What is laundry soap made of and its composition
Some people listen to false information about what laundry soap is made of. There were rumors in the USSR that it was made from stray dogs. You need to think about the fact that these animals have little fat, which means that the production process will be unprofitable. Moreover, the composition of dog fat is unsuitable for soap making. Consider what laundry soap is made of, composition, useful properties and types.
- What does the percentage on a bar of soap mean?
- Composition of laundry soap
- Types of goods
- The benefits of laundry soap: a variety of ways to use it
- Production features
- Names of popular brands
What does the percentage on a bar of soap mean?
On domestic soap, the manufacturer’s stamp is always affixed. There is also a nominal weight, which is denoted by the abbreviation «n. m. Numbers, percentages are applied to each bar of soap (67%, 60%, 70%, 72%). Such a stamp is required to indicate the category of goods. Consider what is the relationship between percentages and the composition of soap, its properties.
The cleaning properties of the product depend on the category. The percentage indicates the amount of acids in the composition. A soap with a higher percentage will clean things better, remove dirt more effectively. There is a minus: alkalis dry out the skin. According to GOST, 72 percent of acids are allowed in the composition of laundry soap, no more. Such a view is considered a rarity today. Most often, manufacturers are engaged in the production of goods with acidity in the range of 60%.
In the manufacture of soap from oils, natural fats, slight differences in the content of fatty acids may be allowed (during the production of different batches). During storage, the bar is able to evaporate a fraction of the moisture. At the same time, its mass changes. The question arises: how to ensure that the buyer receives soap with the percentage of fatty acids that is indicated on it.
The solution has been found. Introduced a special indicator. It is represented by a quality number, which is the guaranteed level of fatty acids when converted to “n. m.» bar weighing 100 g. The specified indicator is set by GOST.
Based on GOST, it is customary to distinguish only 3 categories of soap:
- 70.5% or more.
Establishing a quality number is easy. For a bar of 72% with «n. m.» 200 g, the indicator in question will be 144 g.
When the content of fatty acids in soap differs from the standard, the mass changes.
Let’s give an example: we analyzed soap. He showed that the fatty acids in the composition of 75%. This indicator does not comply with regulatory documents (72%). This means that the mass of the piece is 192 g. If, on the contrary, the soap contains only 71%, then in order to ensure the desired indicator of fatty acids in the bar, it is worth increasing the mass (it should be 202.8 g). According to such calculations, the buyer will receive the 144 g of pure anhydrous soap he needs. To do this, he must buy a bar with «n. m.» weighing 200 g.
Composition of laundry soap
The basis of soap are fats, fatty acids, oils. Fat-containing wastes are also used (they are saponified by potassium and sodium alkalis).
The following ingredients are used as raw materials for production:
- Vegetable oils. Palm kernel, sunflower, palm can be used.
- Fats of animal origin. Often used pork, lamb, beef. A mixture of them can also be used.
- Fatty acid. For the production of soap, stearic and oleic acids are used. They also use palmitic. These substances are isolated from fats.
- Salomas. To obtain this component, oils are saturated with hydrogen atoms. The process is carried out at a temperature of +200…+300 °C. The presence of catalysts is required. They are represented by platinum, nickel. Fat gets hardness due to the combination of hydrogen atoms and fatty acids.
- Synthetic type of fatty acids. Their manufacture is carried out by blowing paraffin with air, which is preheated to +105 … +120 ° С. Manganese compounds are used as a catalyst. Their production has been suspended since 2001 at domestic factories. Technologies were recognized as unprofitable. The quality of the soap was low, but the volumes of poisonous waters were large.
- Soapstock. This component is represented by products of purification of fats, oils by means of alkaline solutions. The low quality of this chemical element affects the smell of soap, it becomes unpleasant, and the color darkens.
Each of the components that is part of laundry soap 72 according to GOST determines the production technology. When manufacturing, you need to know the properties of the main substance.
Types of goods
In total, there are several types of soap:
- Liquid laundry soap. There are no differences from lumpy, except for the shape. They sell it in bottles similar to dishwashing detergent. The color is the same as the usual product. They are good to use when washing, for washing dishes. There is a difference in composition, smell (the liquid form contains several chemical elements).
- Baby. This type of soap is ideal for washing baby clothes. It has a soft structure, not too pronounced smell, so as not to cause discomfort in children.
- White. This soap color is obtained through the use of white. Do not use for washing dishes. Manufacturers warn against getting the product into the body. The white color may be the result of the use of sodium hydroxide in a certain amount (the more substance, the lighter the shade of the soap).
- Powder. This product does not contain any additives. Standard soap is ground to small granules. A similar powder can be poured for washing in a washing machine.
Soap specifications will vary depending on the manufacturer, production technology.
The benefits of laundry soap: a variety of ways to use it
Why do many housewives prefer a unique detergent — laundry soap? This product is recognized for:
- ecological purity. Made from natural fatty acids;
- universality. It is considered a unique means of hygiene.
Note: With the help of soap, even stubborn stains from fuel oil and oil paints can be removed. It will cope with old pollution. Due to such quality as environmental friendliness, soap is used in the processing of combs, toothbrushes, as well as for washing products.
It is difficult to do without this tool in everyday life. Soap suds do an excellent job of removing organic compounds from fabrics. Detergent can be used to wash dishes, wash children’s clothes. With its help, it is easy to remove fatty deposits.
In addition to the methods of using soap described above, there are others. For example:
- prevention of colds;
- suppuration treatment;
- elimination of fungal infections;
- treatment of acne, various growths on the skin;
- dandruff removal;
- cleansing of the skin. Fans of the Russian bath recommend soaking a broom in water from households. soap;
- reduction of fat content of the skin;
- treatment of areas with chemical and sunburns.
The benefits of soap are invaluable. We must not forget that it contains a lot of alkali. This component is able to wash off the fat necessary for the skin. To use soap without harm to the body, it is important to take into account the dosage, rules of use.
Above, we considered the question of what laundry soap consists of. Now we will describe in more detail the technology for the production of this tool. The manufacturing process includes several stages. Initially, the components are boiled, a liquid solution of acids is obtained. This liquid is then given a presentation.
Soap from fats is obtained in 2 ways:
- Straight. In this case, fats are melted at high temperatures. This forms a soapy adhesive. The resulting mass is then cut into portioned pieces. The method is often used because of its simplicity. But thanks to the described process in production, it is possible to obtain soap with an acidity of 60% (the content of fatty acids does not exceed the specified indicator).
- Indirect. This method also involves the formation of soap glue. The difference is that salt is added to the solution. This component allows you to get a product with an increased level of fatty acids. Such soap is called sound. Caustic soda is added to eliminate unsplitted fats. The described technique allows to produce 65% soap in the production process.
To obtain a product with an acidity of 70%, 72% perform salting out of fatty acids. After 2-3 salting out procedures, an almost white bar of soap is obtained. The product of the highest quality is made by repeatedly grinding its base. In addition, various disinfectants and detergents can be added to the composition of the soap.
Names of popular brands
Soaps from various manufacturers are found in modern markets. Here is a list of popular ones that produce their goods according to the GOST recipe with a description:
- DURU. One package includes 2 or 4 bars. The cost is identical to standard soap. The color is different — it is white. The surface of the bar is decorated with patterns.
- «Stork». The color of the soap is brown, the edges are rough, the smell is identical. The manufacturer has created a children’s version — «Stork». Aist differs in a lighter color. Use when washing children’s clothes.
- «Freedom». Natural soap with rounded corners. Removes stains that laundry detergent does not remove.
- «Cinderella». Available in powder form in large granules. Yellow color. The aroma is unique. Represents the only analogue of households. soap, which is available in powder form.
- «Eared nanny». Represented by children’s white soap. The texture is delicate.
- «Meridian». It has a specific aroma, similar to the smell of a fire, soft texture, thick foam.
- «Economy». Sold in a transparent package, the color is like a traditional soap.
- House Frau. Produced in transparent bottles, the smell is standard, contains vitamin E.
- «Sun». Soap color is yellow. Copes with the strongest fat, is economical, has a pleasant lemon flavor.
- «Antipyatin». Hypoallergenic product with lemon aroma, used in laundry.
- Sarma. White bar, foams well. «Sarma» has a neutral smell.
- «Spring». The composition is similar to the traditional household. soap. The smell is similar.
Laundry soap is considered a useful assistant. According to reviews, they can clean almost everything. Do not forget about the medicinal properties of this product.